Kidney stones are created when certain substances in urine — including calcium, oxalate, and sometimes uric acid — crystallize. These salts and minerals form crystals, that can then join together, forming a kidney stone.
Generally why some people form kidney stones while, others do not is unclear. The kidney stone disease is mostly common in young and the middle-aged adults than the elderly and are more prevalent in men than the women. The people living in the hot climates are sometimes prone to kidney stones because they might become dehydrated more often than those in the cooler climates, resulting the minerals to concentrate in their urine and makeing the crystal formation easier. Medical evidences suggests that the drinking of too few fluids can increase the risk of forming kidney stones.
It happens rarely, that a stone is too large to pass into the ureter and remains lodged in the kidney. Mostly the urinary stones are composed of the calcium oxalate crystals — a salt in the urine and is difficult to dissolve. The Uric acid is a less common cause of the kidney stones. If the urine is chronically infected with certain organisms, then it can be prone to getting different other types of the kidney stones.
Some people are frequent “stone formers.” A person who has one stone has a 50% chance of developing another stone over 10 years.
Several risk factors for the kidney stones make it more likely of getting them. Some of these factors can be controlled while others cannot.
Risk factors that can be controlled:
The things one can control includes;
• Quantity of the fluid one drinks. The most common cause of kidney stones is not drinking proper amount of water. Try to drink enough water to keep your urine light yellow or clear like water (about 8 to 10 glasses of water a day).
• The Meal Plan or the Diet. The diets high in protein, sodium, and oxalate-rich foods, for e.g.; dark green vegetables, increase the risk for kidney stones. It’s wise to schedule an appointment with a dietitian and review the food choices.
• Being overweight. This may cause insulin resistance as well as increased calcium in urine, resulting in a greater risk for the kidney stones. So, the body weight should be in limits.
• Medicines. Some medicines, such as acetazolamide (Diamox) and indinavir (Crixivan), can cause kidney stones to form.
Risk factors you cannot control:
The things one cannot control includes;
• The age and gender of the person.
• The men between ages of 30 – 50 are most likely to get the kidney stones.
• The post-menopausal women who has low estrogen levels has an increased risk for the kidney stones. The women who had their ovaries removed are also at an increased risk of kidney stone.
• The family history is also a cause of the kidney stones.
• Personal history of the frequent urinary tract infections.
• Other diseases and conditions, such as, Gout, hyperparathyroidism, Crohn’s disease, etc.
• The Intestinal surgery or gastric bypass surgery.
• The Insulin resistanceInsulin resistance, which may occur because of the diabetes or obesity.