Kidney stones are constitute salts and minerals in the urine which stick together to form small “pebbles”and can be as small as grains of sand or may be as large as golf balls. Kidney Stones may stay in your kidneys or travel out of your body through the urinary tract. Urinary tract makes urine and carries it out of the body. It is made up of the kidneys, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (Ureters), the bladder, and the tube leading from the bladder out of the body (Urethra).
Four main types of kidney stones are:
Mostly kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially the calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and the other minerals may also be present. The conditions that causes high calcium levels in the body is; hyperparathyroidism which increases the risk of calcium stones. High levels of oxalate may also increase the risk for calcium stones.
Uric acid stones
Some kidney stones are made of uric acid which is a waste product, passed out of the body in the urine. People are more likely to have uric acid stones if you have low urine output, diet high in animal protein (red meat), an increase in how much alcohol one drinks, Gout and Inflammatory bowel disease.
Some kidney stones are also struvite stones and can be called infection stones, if occurred with kidney or urinary tract infections. These types of kidney stones sometimes are also termed as staghorn calculi, if they grow large enough.Kidney stones can be serious, as they are often large stones and may occur with an infection.. Women are affected more than men as they have higher risk of urinary tract infections.
These kidney stones are less common, made of a chemical called cystine. These kidney stones are more likely to occur in people whose families have a condition which results in too much cystine in urine (cystinuria).
Kidney stones are formed, when a change occurs in the normal balance of water, salts, minerals, and other things present in urine. The most common cause of kidney stones is not drinking ample of water. Try to drink enough water, so that the urine is light yellow or clear like water. Some people are more likely to get kidney stones because of gout.
When a large kidney stone travels through the ureter, it gets stuck in the urinary tract, you may need more treatment. Kidney stones often cause no pain while it is in the kidneys. But can cause severe pain as it travels from the kidneys to the bladder.
Kidney stones may also be an inherited disease. If any people in the family have had kidney stones, others may have them too. After one had kidney stones, that person is more likely to have them again. It can be prevented by drinking plenty of water, enough so that the urine is light yellow or clear like water, about 8 – 10 glasses of water per day. Need to eat less of certain foods.